A History of Photography: The whole technicality of photography can be broken down into two very simple ideas. One: To capture the light coming from any scene and reflect it on a screen. Two: To capture that reflected scene permanently through a medium.
The first thing to do is to reflect on the screen a long time ago. If a dark square box has a hole equal to the needle’s tip in the front floor and a white screen is placed on the opposite side of the box, that screen captures the front view in reverse. If a glass lens could be placed in the place of the hole, then this picture would be clearer, people knew about it around 1400. But until then. It took more than 400 years to discover the technology to capture this image permanently.
It was discovered in the early 1800s that when a plate was coated with a ‘light-sensitive’ chemical and reflected there, the different parts of the plate reacted differently depending on the intensity of the light. As a result, the image appeared on the plate. The problem is elsewhere this picture could not be made permanent. Finally, in the early 1800s, a joint effort by Louis Daguerre and Joseph Niepce created the Daguerreotype process, in which the coating of a light-sensitive compound called silver halide was used as a means of capturing images. However, if I had a hobby of taking pictures, I would have sat in front of the camera for fifteen minutes without shaking my head!
See picture number three. This is also a street photo of Paris taken by Louis Doug. It took approximately ten to twelve minutes for the light to enter the camera to take this picture; As I said before, it took a long time to capture a picture in Dagerotype, because the medium could not be made very light-sensitive even then. The funny thing is, the presence of two people in the picture (notice) Exposing a picture for such a long time usually doesn’t catch anything moving in the picture (a lecture on exposure is coming up), but one of the two was a shoe polisher and the other a customer. A History of Photography: That’s why they were fairly stable in one place.
Over time, there have been many modifications to the camera and film… small cameras, high-speed cameras, more or less light-sensitive films, and so on. But the basic process is the same. And then? The world has gone digital. I will tell you later how digital cameras work. I am concluding this part of the lecture with the pictures of the first digital camera.
Though let’s discuss this in detail. Later I found out that I don’t understand much myself, and since I won’t talk much about film photography, as I said before, so why bother and tell me why I will take this risk! In short, let’s talk about the black and white film process:
1. The film is coated with a chemical compound called ‘Silver Halide
2. When the light of a scene is focused on this film, the light sensor breaks down through this silver halide reaction and turns into silver. Where there is not much light in the scene, the level of reaction is also very low. And the dark parts do not react, the silver halide remains intact. After the film is taken, the film is called ‘exposed film’.
3. Another chemical solution is used during the development of this ‘exposed’ film, which removes the unaltered silver halide from the film and leaves only the silver. So at the last stage, we get a film where different amounts of silver are deposited based on the intensity of light. The brightly lit parts in the negative will be darkened due to a lot of silver deposits. Now you have to put light through this negative image on the light-sensitive ‘photo paper’. The actual picture will appear on the paper based on the intensity of the light.
The main difference is very simple. While film cameras capture images as the ‘end product’ of chemical reactions, digital cameras capture images as ‘binary data’. That means digital cameras include a small computer that records the intensity of light entering through a lens as a series of binary numbers. So instead of film, digital cameras have an electronic sensor. These sensors are equipped with thousands of tiny ‘cells’ that convert the intensity of light into electronic charge. Since a scene has a different intensity of light, each cell of the sensor will ‘receive’ light of different intensity and as a result, a different amount of charge will be generated in each cell. The ‘Final image’ is created by recording and processing the intensity level of this charge from all the cells. There are basically two types of sensors; CCD and CMOS. The main function of both is the same, but due to the differences in the manufacturing process, CCD gives a much better image quality, but the energy consumption is much higher than that of C-Moss. For this reason, C-MOS sensors are now used in most digital cameras, although CCD sensors are important in astronomy or other research.
The whole thing is more complicated; For example, a ‘bare filter’ is placed on the sensor to capture the color information of different parts of the image. I did not discuss this matter to avoid complications.
Photography Classification (Genre)
This classification is a big confusion for me. Although it seems most helpless to remember the nuances of microbiology, it is very easy to classify photographs! The hierarchy of photography can be viewed from two different perspectives. One is the classification of ‘photographs’. Another is the difference between ‘photographer’ and ‘professional’. Many people confuse these two, so I set them apart.
Types of photographs: Suppose
* Landscape: Usually a picture of nature, much larger spread. In the picture, the basic elements of nature such as sky, water, sea these things prevail over the animals. Again, many make ‘Urban Landscape’, where the inert elements of the city can also come into the picture.
* Macro: A very close-up detail image. The subject of a macro image can be many things .. from insects to a close-up of a part of an inanimate object. Macros require lenses that can focus very close to take pictures.
* Action: A film that shows a very fast subject. It could be a speeding car or a moment of competition, and so on.
* Still Life: A picture of an inanimate object that creates an atmosphere due to the craftsmanship of light and shadow.